There are many guidelines for authors in various scientific disciplines. It is strongly adviced that you also read specific check-lists in specific fields before you plan a study or write a paper.
For a range of medical studies, reporting standards can be found under the Equator network.
Some of the most important are found in the CONSORT, MOOSE, PRISMA, REFLECT, STARD, and STROBE statements. :
- http://www.consort-statement.org (for clinical trials; there are elaborations for abstracts, cluster designs, reporting of harms, herbal interventions, non-inferiority and equivalence studies, trials of non-pharmacologic interventions, and pragmatic trials)
- http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/reprint/283/15/2008 (for MOOSE: Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology: A Proposal for Reporting, Donna F. Stroup et al.; published in J Am Med Assoc 2000; 283:2008-2012)
- http://prisma-statement.org (for meta-analyses and systematic reviews)
- http://reflect-statement.org (for clinical trials in livestock)
- http://www.stard-statement.org (for evaluations of diagnostic tests)
- http://www.strobe-statement.org (for observational studies; there is an elaboration for studies of genetic associations)
Specific instructions are given under guidelines for authors for each journal. For Epi studies, a very elaborate authoir guideline is found for Preventive Veterinary Medicine here
The linked pages brings you some hints on technical questions related to study design, databases, sample size calculations etc.